Monday, May 16, 2005

 

Merton's Midrange, Latent, Metho v. theo

http://ssr1.uchicago.edu//PRELIMS/Theory/thmisc2.html#MERTON1

ROBERT MERTON: Social Theory and Social Structure

Chapter 2: Sociological Theories of the Middle Range

There are two tendencies in sociological inquiry which Merton finds unacceptable and attempts to criticize. One is radical or narrow empiricism which stresses solely on the collection of data without any attention to a theory. The other is the abstract theorizing of scholars who are engaged in the attempt to construct a total theoretical system covering all aspects of social life (e.g. Parsons). Merton proposes sociological theories of the middle range as a solution to the two extreme positions. According to Merton, middle range theory starts its theorizing with delimited aspects of social phenomena rather than with a broad, abstract entity such as society or social system. Middle range theories may seem to be similar to general, total theories in the sense that they also involve abstractions. However, unlike those in the general theories, the abstractions in theories of the middle range are firmly backed up by observed data. Middle range theories have to be constructed with reference to phenomena that are observable in order to generate an array of theoretical problems as well as to be incorporated in propositions that permit empirical testing (39). The examples of middle range theories are a theory of reference groups, of social mobility, of role-conflict, of the formation of social norms, etc. Merton's objective in proposing the notion of middle range theory can be summarized by his statement that:

'Our major task today is to develop special theories applicable to limited conceptual ranges -- theories, for example, of deviant behavior, the unanticipated consequences of purposive action, social perception, reference groups, social control, the interdependence of social institutions -- rather than to seek the total conceptual structure that is adequate to derive these and other theories of the middle range' (51).

'Sociological theory, if it is to advance significantly, must proceed on these interconnected planes: 1. by developing special theories from which to derive hypotheses that can be empirically investigated and 2. by evolving a progressively more general conceptual scheme that is adequate to consolidate groups of special theories' (51).

Note: 1. see summary of pros and cons of middle range theory on p. 68 2. see definition and description of paradigm on p. 69-72

Chapter 3: Manifest and Latent Functions

In this chapter, Merton presents a review of chief concepts and modes of reasoning of functional theory. His aim is to improve functional analysis by pointing out its major problems and finding the way to remedy them. According to Merton, all variations of functional analysis always involve two major confusions. One is the tendency to confine observation merely to the contributions of items or practices to the social or cultural system in which they are implicated. The other is the tendency to confuse the subjective category of motive with the objective category of function. To solve these two conceptual confusions, Merton introduces two, new analytical concepts - i.e. the notion of multiple consequences and a new balance of an aggregate consequences to deal with the first problem, and the notion of manifest and latent functions to tackle the second (see summary on p. 105).

1. The Problem of an Overly Positive Interpretation The common tendency among functional analysts to advocate merely the positive contribution of certain items and practices to a social system is based on three fundamental postulates which Merton is to criticize. These three postulates are:
1. The postulate of functional unity of society, or the assumption that in any social system, there exists a certain kind of unity or solidarity which will 'benefit every single member.' Thus, in analyzing certain items or practices, such are always interpreted in references to this unity.
Merton argues against this assumption, saying that one cannot assume 'full' integration of all societies since even a mere institution can tell that different societies do not have the same kind and degree of integration. However, to establish a statement concerning different kinds and a range of degrees of integration, one has to rely mainly on empirical findings, not on intuition.
Finally Merton concludes that in regard to issue of functional unity, functional analysts have to specify which and what kind of social unit/system they are going to analyze. The reason is different social units always have different degrees of integration, and hence the manner in which certain cultural items or practices contribute to differing social units may not be similar. Besides, such items of culture must be recognized to have multiple consequences, some of them functional and others, perhaps, dysfunctional.
2. The postulate of universal functionalism (84), or the assertion that all persisting social and cultural forms are inevitably functional or having a mere positive function to a society (84). Against this postulate, Merton contends that we need to look for the negative or dysfunctional side as well as functional consequences of these forms. And if the sociological research is to have bearing on social technology, sociologists have to be able to assess the net balance of functional consequences, i.e. the sum between the benefit and disadvantage that a certain cultural or social form brings about.
3. The postulate of indispensability, which contains two propositions, namely:
3.1 the indispensability of certain functions, or the assertions that there are certain functions which are indispensable in the sense that unless they are performed, the society will not persist (87). This assertion sets forth a concept of functional prerequisites, or preconditions functionally necessary for a society.
3.2 the indispensability of existing social institutions and cultural forms, or the assertion that the presence of existing cultural or social forms implies their indispensability to a society.
Like his earlier criticism of the first two postulates, the two assertions concerning the postulate of indispensability is refuted by Merton's concept of multiple consequences (i.e. functional and dysfunctional), and the new balance of aggregate consequences.

2. The Confusion Between Subjective Dispositions and Objective Consequences
One of Merton's major contributions to the improvement of functional analysis is his distinction between manifest and latent functions. Merton states that such distinction is devised to preclude the confusion often found between conscious motivations for social behavior and its objective consequences (114). According to Merton, these two entities: motive and functions vary independently. One should not be confused the categories of subjective disposition with categories of generally unrecognized but objective functional consequences.
Manifest functions refer to the objective consequences contributing to the adjustment or adaptation of the system which are intended and recognized by participants in the system. Latent functions, on the other hand, refer to those consequences which are neither intended nor recognized. Merton further clarifies that unintended consequences can be seen as having three sorts of functions (or three ways that they can be related to a social system). These are functional (beneficial), dysfunctional (harmful), and non-functional (irrelevant).

Note: 1. see Merton's clarification of various meanings and usages of the term function which often cause conceptual confusion on p. 74-77.
2. see Merton's interesting discussion about how conservatism and Marxism can be seen as converging and diverging in regard to functional analysis. According to Merton, the logical structure of both conservatism and Marxism are similar in that such a structure is characterized by functional mode of reasoning. The difference between the two lies in their differing ideological content (see details in p. 91-96).






Comments:
ups sorry delete plz [url=http://duhum.com].[/url]
 
[url=http://tinyurl.com/getvpn][b]Click here to get VPN service![/b][/url]

[b]Anonymous surfing[/b]
Using our service you'll be fully anonymous in the Internet. Hide your IP address, and nobody will know that strange visitor from Germany ( Great Britain, Estonia and so ), is you.

[b]Full access to network[/b]
You can use any services, access any sites and use any software with us. BitTorrent, Skype, Facebook, MySpace, Twitter, Pocker .. we have no restrictions.

[b]Traffic protection[/b]
Don't worry, from this moment all you data will be protected using 256 bit Blowfish encryption algorithm. Nobody can access your internet data.

[b]Wide variety of countries[/b]
You can choose one of over twenty high speed servers located in different parts of the world, from South America coast to islands in Indian Ocean.

Related keywords:
anonymous surfing review
proxy server vpn
anonymous secure surfing
proxy vpn
anonymous vpn free
internet explorer vpn
vpn dial up
ssl vpn
Traffic protection
anonymous surfing freeware
anonymous surfing software
vtunnel
anonymous surfing vpn
best anonymous browser
surf the web anonymous
best anonymous surfing
anonymizer anonymous surfing review
firefox anonymous surfing
Virtual Private Networks
Free Vpn Client Software
anonymous surfing software
[url=http://dasbmw.ru] anonymous surfing software[/url]
[url=http://seobraincenter.ru] anonymous proxy[/url]
[url=http://carlwebster.com/members/Alexander-Pwnz.aspx]Buy Cheap Zoloft[/url]
 
Hi Guys,Just registered here and looking to have a great time. I am looking for the best cash gifting program out there in the internet. Can you guide me?

Below are some sites that I found and I am not sure how much they are going to help me.
[url=http://www.squidoo.com/Residual-Cash-Forever-Cash-Gifting-System]cash gifting[/url]
[url=http://www.squidoo.com/Residual-Cash-Forever-Cash-Gifting-System]join cash gifting[/url]
[url=http://www.squidoo.com/Residual-Cash-Forever-Cash-Gifting-System]best cash gifting program[/url]
 
You could easily be making money online in the hush-hush world of [URL=http://www.www.blackhatmoneymaker.com]blackhat seo[/URL], You are far from alone if you haven’t heard of it before. Blackhat marketing uses little-known or little-understood methods to build an income online.
 
greetings to all.
I would first like to thank the writers of this blog by sharing information, a few years ago I read a book called guanacaste costa rica in this book deal with questions like this one.
 
Hello .. firstly I would like to send greetings to all readers. After this, I recognize the content so interesting about this article. For me personally I liked all the information. I would like to know of cases like this more often. In my personal experience I might mention a book called Generic Viagra in this book that I mentioned have very interesting topics, and also you have much to do with the main theme of this article.
 
top [url=http://www.001casino.com/]online casinos[/url] brake the latest [url=http://www.casinolasvegass.com/]free casino bonus[/url] manumitted no deposit hand-out at the foremost [url=http://www.baywatchcasino.com/]baywatch casino
[/url].
 
top [url=http://www.c-online-casino.co.uk/]free casino bonus[/url] coincide the latest [url=http://www.realcazinoz.com/]casino bonus[/url] free no store bonus at the best [url=http://www.baywatchcasino.com/]www.baywatchcasino.com
[/url].
 
Can there be a pc program that will automatically start other programs?


Feel free to visit my website Transvaginal Mesh Lawyers
 
Gеntly lеt go аnd thеn establiѕhеd the
spiԁеr upsiԁе down (ωith its legs in
the аіr) to drу. - Centrе tunnel chіmney
duct to maxіmise suссessful wаrm аirflow.

Τhe landfill еxtended thе spοt sο it cаn be chosen to builԁ
on.

Ηaѵe a lοоk at mу weblog; busythumbs.com
 
Αn information and inѕtructіonal site fοr the home pizza cοok.
That's right, no buying that sorry excuse for pizza dough at your local grocery store; we're
talκіng thе reаl dеal
here. Toр the dough with olive oil oг cooking spray, anԁ ѕcooρ thе onіon mixture oveг іt eѵеnly.


My ωеblog - pizza stone
 
Hello There. I found your blog using msn. This is a very
well written article. I'll be sure to bookmark it and return to read more of your useful information. Thanks for the post. I'll definitely comeback.


Have a look at my web blog: www.dnfight.com
 
We're a group of volunteers and starting a new scheme in our community. Your site offered us with valuable information to work on. You've ԁοnе an impгeѕsivе job
and our whole cοmmunitу will be thanκful tο yоu.


mу homepage - augen lasern berlin europacenter
 
Turn the dоugh once to coat, thеn сοvеr the bowl ωіth a damp diѕhtowеl.
If you dοn’t, then you ωill have to bake
each loаf sеρarately. Add thе water a teaspoon at a time so
it's not over done.

my website pizza Stone and paddle set
 
I am genuinely thankful to the holder of this web
page who has shared this wonderful post at here.

my page :: Cost Of Dental Implant
 
Today, I went to the beach with my kids. I found a sea shell
and gave it to my 4 year old daughter and said "You can hear the ocean if you put this to your ear." She put
the shell to her ear and screamed. There was a hermit crab inside and
it pinched her ear. She never wants to go back!
LoL I know this is entirely off topic but I had to tell someone!


my website :: http://xasca.science.uu.nl/Yeast_Infection_Treatments
 
bookmarked!!, I love your blog!

My homepage ... dental implants costs
 
Your mode of explaining the whole thing in this post is truly good, all
be capable of simply be aware of it, Thanks a lot.

Here is my web site ... telupidwap.net
 
Informative article, totally what I was looking for.

Here is my blog :: cheap dental implants
 
Fabulous, what a website it is! This website presents helpful facts
to us, keep it up.

Here is my web site :: Reiss-Engelhorn-Museen - Kindergeburtstag im Museum
 
Sometimes seasons reasons some shoes are[url=http://niketrainersuksale.webeden.co.uk]Nike Trainers UK[/url]
temporarily won't have the cabability to[url=http://tomscanadaoutlet.snappages.com]Toms Canada[/url]
wear such shoes discovered[url=http://addnikecanadastore.snappages.com]Nike Shoes For Women[/url]
properly erect them during the[url=http://niketrainersuksale.webeden.co.uk]Nike Blazers UK[/url]
right devote to avoid unnecessary harm to shoes[url=http://salelouisvuittonuk.webeden.co.uk]Louis Vuitton UK[/url]

But if the insole is usually bad, it'd want to use a gentle brush and water gently scrub. Has to be noted that, don't use chemical soaps cleaning, or a few might result in the insole the top of cloth off.[url=http://shoppradabagsuk.webeden.co.uk]Prada Outlet[/url]

 
Magnavox Lcd Higher definition tv - Techie Information

My blog post: pontifical
 
Series For Starting A fresh Business: 12 Methods To Starting
A small venture: Step 3 Arranged Plan

my website; optoma hd33 review
 
Download Watching Saw 5 Video clip - Zero cost And Suitable?



Here is my blog post: video to mp3
 
Hd tv - The best way The Ideal Deal Online With an Hdtv

My web site ... http://www.clfinal2013.com
 
Thinking about Choose Sennheiser Rs180?

Here is my web blog; top 10 projectors
 
Soundproof Your household Quickly

my website: rant
 
Be sure you Video Recorder

Feel free to surf to my blog adventitious
 
Disconnect In the Cord And revel in Your Music

my page - whereby
 
For what reason Id Badges Are essential

Review my page ... paday loans uk
 
Halo Projector Headlights

Also visit my homepage: payday loans
 
Three Essential Subway Hip-hop Documentaries To get Music Lovers

my blog post ... payday (http://www.pilkipedia.co.uk/wiki/index.php?title=User:RodgerZas)
 
Nikon Coolpix S1000pj--a Video camera With Projector

Review my web blog :: payday loans
 
For Home entertainment Service, Denver Service providers
Offer Style and design, Installation Plus Maintenance

My page payday loans
 
Indianapolis Jones Along with the Kingdom On the Crystal Cranium
Movie Downloads available Is Sizzling hot!

My site paday loans uk ()
 
Think about the Panasonic Tx-p42v10 Tv for pc

Feel free to surf to my web blog ... paday loans uk
 
Acquiring a solar method is really a excellent option for residential homes or apartments that have a transparent rooftop. The size of the photo voltaic panel establishes the amount of electrical power it can change into electrical energy. This panels ensure ongoing free of charge vitality.bandage dressesgucci beltsnew balance shoesGiuseppe Zanottiair jordan 13 "3M"3M 13sjordan 13 grey toegrey toe 13sgrey toe 13jordan 6 infraredinfrared 6sso kate shoescheap air maxnike freered bottomsblack infrared 6sblack infrared 6sGiuseppe Zanotti shoesjordan infrared 6sjimmy choo shoeslegend blue 11sjimmy choo pas cherdesigner shoesescarpins Louboutinsport blue 6sair jordan 11legend blue 11sgucci beltslegend blue 11sGiuseppe Zanotti shoesjimmy choo salejimmy choo shoesnew balance shoes, jordan infrared 6s, infrared 6s, cheap gucci belts, christian louboutin shoes, red bottom shoes, new balance It can be tremendously expensive to set up solar programs but it surely continues to be really reduced on maintenance. And around the long operate you'll conserve much more on energy charges by utilizing this terrific alternate source of strength.

 
Distinctive panels create distinctive electricity outputs. legend 11sair jordan 11 legend bluelegend blue 11legend blue 11slegend blue 11sair jordan 6 black infraredreplica designer shoescheap designer shoesdesigner shoesdesigner shoesjimmy choo shoesjimmy choo shoescheap uggsjimmy choojimmy choo shoesred bottomsnew balance outletnew balance outletjimmy choo shoesGiuseppe Zanotti shoesGiuseppe Zanotti shoesherve leger dressesherve leger outletbandage dressesbodycon dressesbodycon dressesgucci beltscheap gucci beltsjimmy choo outletChristian Louboutin Daffodilejimmy choo shoesair jordan 11 legend blue, black infrared 6s, gucci belts, designer shoes
Much larger panels deliver a lot more electric power when compared with the scaled-down types. The sort of cells made use of establish the scale on the panel. In actual fact, you can decide on a few of gizmos as part of your dwelling that could operate on energy created via this technique.
 
burberry outlet online,burberry,burberry outlet,burberry handbags,burberry factory outlet,burberry sale, ray ban sunglasses, michael kors outlet,michael kors,kors outlet,michael kors handbags,michael kors outlet online,michael kors outlet online sale,michael kors handbags clearance,michael kors purses,michaelkors.com,michael kors bags,michael kors shoes,michaelkors,cheap michael kors, tiffany and co jewelry,tiffany and co outlet,tiffany and co,tiffany's,tiffanys,tiffany co,tiffany jewelry, rolex watches,rolex,watches for men,watches for women,omega watches,replica watches,rolex watches for sale,rolex replica,rolex watch,cartier watches,rolex submariner,fake rolex,rolex replica watches,replica rolex, tiffany and co jewelry,tiffany and co outlet,tiffany and co,tiffany's,tiffanys,tiffany co,tiffany jewelry, oakley sunglasses, longchamp handbags,longchamp,longchamp outlet,longchamp bags,long champ, uggs, nike free,free running,nike free run,nike free 5.0,free running 2,nike running shoes,nike free trainer,nike free trainer 5.0,free runs,free run 5.0, michael kors outlet store,michael kors outlet,michael kors outlet online,michael kors,kors outlet,michael kors handbags,michael kors outlet online sale,michael kors handbags clearance,michael kors purses,michaelkors.com,michael kors bags,michael kors shoes,michaelkors,cheap michael kors, tory burch outlet,tory burch,tory burch handbags,tory burch shoes,tory burch sale,toryburch,tory burch sandals,toryburch.com,tory burch flip flops, prada handbags,prada,prada sunglasses,prada shoes,prada outlet,prada bags, kate spade outlet,kate spade,katespade,kate spade handbags, louis vuitton handbags,vuitton handbags,louis vuitton bags,louis vuitton purses, nike shoes,nike outlet,nike factory,nike store,nike factory outlet,nike outlet store,cheap nike shoes,nike sneakers, uggs outlet, louis vuitton outlet online,louis vuitton,louis vuitton outlet,louisvuitton.com,authentic louis vuitton,louis vuitton factory outlet,cheap louis vuitton, chanel handbags,chanel bags,chanel sunglasses,chanel purses,chanel outlet, louis vuitton outlet,louis vuitton outlet online,louis vuitton,louisvuitton.com,authentic louis vuitton,louis vuitton factory outlet,cheap louis vuitton, longchamp,longchamp handbags,longchamp outlet,longchamp bags,long champ
 
hollister uk, lacoste pas cher, air force,nike air force,air force 1,air force one,nike air force 1,nike air force one,air force one nike, north face, nike free,free run,nike free run,nike free pas cher,nike free run pas cher,nike free france, nike roshe uk, abercrombie and fitch UK, michael kors,michael kors uk,michael kors handbags,michael kors bags, oakley pas cher,oakley,oakley soldes,lunette oakley pas cher,oakley france, burberry pas cher, timberland pas cher, true religion, kate spade handbags,kate spade,kate spade outlet,katespade, mulberry,mulberry handbags,mulberry outlet,mulberry bags,mulberry uk, longchamp,sac longchamp,longchamps,longchamp pas cher,sac longchamp pas cher,longchamp pliage,longchamp soldes,sac longchamps,longchamp france, hermes,sac hermes,hermes pas cher,sac hermes pas cher, coach outlet store online,coach outlet store,coach outlet, new balance pas cher, ray ban pas cher,ray ban,rayban,lunette ray ban pas cher, air max,nike air max,air max pas cher,air max one,air max 90,air max france, ralph lauren,polo ralph lauren,ralph lauren pas cher,polo ralph lauren pas cher,ralph lauren france, hogan,hogan outlet,scarpe hogan,hogan sito ufficiale,hogan interactive, sac guess,guess pas cher,guess,guess collection,sac a main guess, true religion, coach outlet,coach factory outlet,coach outlet store,coach factory,coach outlet store online,coach factory online,coach factory outlet online,coach outlet online, nike air max, nike roshe run,roshe run,nike roshe,rosh run,roshe run pas cher,nike roshe france, michael kors, vans,vans pas cher,vans soldes, vanessa bruno pas cher, michael kors,sac michael kors,michael kors pas cher,sac michael kors pas cher,michael kors france, north face,the north face,north face pas cher,north face soldes,north face france, nike air max,air max,air max pas cher,air max one,air max 90,air max france, true religion
 
north face outlet,north face,the north face,northface,north face jackets,north face jackets clearance,the north face outlet, iphone 6 plus cases, soccer jerseys,soccer jersey,usa soccer jersey,football jerseys, vans shoes,vans outlet,vans store,star wars vans shoes,cheap vans,vans shoes outlet,white vans,black vans,red vans,vans star wars,vans sneakers,vans shoes outlet store,vans sale,cheap vans shoes, insanity,insanity workout,insanity workout calendar,insanity calendar,insanity workout schedule, iphone cases, nfl jerseys,jerseys,baseball jerseys,cheap jerseys,nba jerseys,hockey jerseys,basketball jerseys,jerseys from china,cheap nfl jerseys, new balance shoes,new balance,balance shoes,new balance outlet,new balance store,new balance store locator,new balance shoes for women,joe's new balance outlet,newbalance,newbalance.com,new balance walking shoes, asics,asics gel,asics running,asics running shoes,asics shoes,asics gel nimbus,asics gel kayano,asics gt, mcm handbags,mcm bags,mcm backpack,mcm outlet, timberland shoes, reebok outlet,reebok,reebok skyscape,reebok shoes, hollister clothing, iphone 5s cases, birkin bag,hermes belt,hermes handbags,hermes birkin,hermes bags,birkin bags, lululemon outlet,lululemon,yoga pants,lulu lemon,lulu.com,lululemon.com, ipad cases, herve leger,herve leger dresses, abercrombie, abercrombie and fitch,abercrombie and,abercrombie,abercrombie kids,abercrombie fitch,abercrombie.com, jimmy choo,jimmy choo shoes,jimmy choo outlet,jimmy choo handbags, giuseppe zanotti, valentino shoes,valentino,valentinos, ghd,ghd hair,ghd hair straighteners,ghd straighteners, beats by dre,dr dre,beats headphones,dre beats,beats by dr,beats by dr dre,beats audio,dr dre beats,dre headphones,beats by dre headphones,beats by dr. dre,cheap beats, ferragamo shoes,ferragamo,salvatore ferragamo,ferragamo belts,ferragamo belt,ferragamo outlet, iphone 6 cases, bottega veneta,bottega,bottega veneta outlet
 
ugg boots,uggs,ugg,ugg boots uk,ugg uk, vans scarpe, montre pas cher, karen millen dresses, hollister,hollister canada,abercrombie and fitch,abercrombie,abercrombie and,abercrombie kids,af, swarovski jewelry, canada goose outlet, barbour,barbour jackets,leather jackets,barbour sale,barbour outlet,barbour uk,barbour coats,barbour clothing, converse, louis vuitton,louis vuitton canada,louis vuitton outlet,louis vuitton outlet online, pandora jewelry,pandora charms,pandora bracelet,pandora bracelets,pandora rings,pandora jewelry store locator,pandora charm,pandora charms clearance,pandora store,pandora jewelry outlet store,pandora jewelry sale online, rolex watches,replica watches,omega watches,rolex watches for sale,replica watches uk,fake rolex, moncler,moncler outlet,moncler sito ufficiale, moncler outlet, lancel, ugg,uggs,uggs canada, canada goose outlet, canada goose outlet, ugg pas cher, pandora jewelry, barbour, louis vuitton,borse louis vuitton,louis vuitton sito ufficiale,louis vuitton outlet, canada goose, ugg,ugg australia,uggs,ugg pas cher,ugg soldes,bottes ugg,bottes ugg pas cher, moncler jackets, gucci, louis vuitton,sac louis vuitton,louis vuitton pas cher,sac louis vuitton pas cher,louis vuitton france, doke & gabbana, juicy couture outlet, sac louis vuitton,louis vuitton,louis vuitton pas cher,sac louis vuitton pas cher,louis vuitton france, wedding dresses,wedding dress,dresses for wedding,bride dresses,dresses for weddings,wedding dresses uk,cheap wedding dresses,vintage wedding dresses,monsoon wedding dresses,lace wedding dresses,wedding dresses for older brides,wedding dresses 2014, coach outlet,coach factory,coach factory outlet,coach outlet store,coach outlet store online,coach factory online,coach factory outlet online,coach outlet online, juicy couture, moncler
 


This article is interesting and useful. Thank you for sharing. And let me share an article about health that God willing will be very useful. Thank you :)
Penyebab Sering Nyeri Ulu Hati
Solusi untuk Menanggulangi Osteoporosis
Obat Penyakit Crohn
Vitamin Penguat Tulang dan sendi
Cara Mengobati Abses Payudara Tanpa Operasi
Cara Menyembuhkan DBD

 
This article is very useful, thank you for sharing. And allow me to share articles too, it's about health and treatment. God willing it will be useful for us all. Thank you :)

Obat Pereda Nyeri Dada Sebelah Kiri
Obat Untuk Miss V Gatal dan Perih/Nyeri
Cara Menghilangkan Abses Payudara
Pengobatan Gagal Ginjal Tanpa Cuci Darah
Cara Menyembuhkan Selesma(Flu) dengan Cepat
Cara Mengobati Luka Jahitan Bernanah
 
Post a Comment

<< Home

This page is powered by Blogger. Isn't yours?